New York Natural Heritage Program
Least Bittern
Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin, 1789)

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.
Aniskowicz, B. T. 1981. Behavior of a male least bittern IXOBRYCHUS EXILIS after loss of mate. Wilson Bulletin 93:395-397.
Bent, A. C. 1926. Life histories of North American marsh birds. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 135.
Bogner, Heidi E. and Guy A. Baldassarre. 2002. The effectiveness of call-response surveys for detecting least bitterns. Journal of Wildlife Management. 66(4):976-984.
Brown, M., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1986. Implications of marsh size and isolation for marsh bird management. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:392-397.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Cramp, S. (editor). 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; the Birds of the Western Paleartic. Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 722 pp.
Eaton, E.H. 1910. Birds of New York. Part 1. New York: University of State of New York. Albany, NY.
Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.
Evers, D. C. 1992. A guide to Michigan's endangered wildlife. Univ. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. viii + 103 pp.
Frederick, P. C., et al. 1990. Relative abundance and habitat preferences of least bitterns (IXOBRYCHUS EXILIS) in the Everglades. Florida Field Nat. 18:1-20.
Gibbs, J.P. and S.M. Melvin. 1992. Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis. pgs. 71-88 in K.J. Schneider and D.M. Pence, eds. Migratory nongame birds of managment concern in the northeast. United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, MA. 400 pp.
Hancock, J., and J. Kushlan. 1984. The Herons Handbook. Croom Helm, Ltd., Kent, England. 288 pp.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Jorde, D. G., J. R. Longcore, and P. W. Brown. 1989. Tidal and nontidal wetlands of northern Atlantic states. Pages 1-26 in L. M. Smith, R. L. Pederson, and R. M. Kaminiski (editors). Habitat management for migrating and Wintering waterfowl in North America. Texas Tech. Univ. Press, Lubbock, Texas.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
King, Matthew. 2005. Species group report for fresh water marsh nesting birds. Pages 97-106 of Appendix A1, Species group reports for birds in: New York State comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy. New York Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany NY.
Kushlan, J. A. 1973. Least bittern nesting colonially. Auk 90:685-686.
Kushlan, J. A. 1978. Feeding ecology of wading birds. National Audubon Society Res. Rep. 7:249-98.
Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
McVaugh, W., Jr. 1975. The development of four North American herons (II). Living Bird 14:163-183.
National Geographic Society (NGS). 1983. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.
NatureServe. 2003. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 1.8. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: January 26, 2004).
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
Palmer, R. S. (editor). 1962. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 1. Loons through flamingos. Yale University Press, New Haven. 567 pp.
Payne, R. B., and C. J. Risley. 1976. Systematics and evolutionary relationships among the herons (Ardeidae). Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool., Misc. Publ. No. 150. 115 pp.
Sauer, J.R., J.E. Hines, and J. Fallon. 2007. The North American breeding bird survey, results and analysis 1966-2006. Version 10.13.2007. US Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD.
Swift, Bryan L. 1987. An analysis of avian breeding habitats in Hudson River Tidal Marshes. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, The Hudson River Foundation for Science and Environmental Research, Inc. 62 pp.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Tiner, R. W., Jr. 1984. Wetlands of the United States: current status and recent trends. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory, Washington, D.C. 59 pp.
Weller, M. W. 1961. Breeding biology of the least bittern. Wilson Bulletin. 73:11-35.


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This guide was authored by:
Information for this guide was last updated on: 08-Aug-2017