New York Natural Heritage Program
Bald Eagle
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766)

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
Andrew, J.M. and J.A. Mosher. 1982. Bald eagle nest site selection and nesting habitat in Maryland. J. Wildlife Management 46:382-390.
Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.
Bent, A.C. 1937. Life histories of North American birds of prey. Part 1. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 137. 409 pp.
Bird, D. M., editor. 1983. Biology and management of bald eagles and ospreys. MacDonald. 325 pp.
Bowerman, W. W., T. G. Grubb, J. P. Giesy, A. J. Bath, and G. A. Dawson. 1993. Population composition and perching habitat of wintering Bald Eagles in northcentral Michigan. Canadian Field Naturalist 107: 273- 278.
Buehler, D. A., S. K. Chandler, T. J. Mersmann, J. D. Fraser, and J. K. D. Seegar. 1992. Nonbreeding Bald Eagle perch habitat on the northern Chesapeake Bay. Wilson Bulletin 104:540-545.
Buehler, D. A., et al. 1991. Differences in distribution of breeding, nonbreeding, and migrant bald eagles on the northern Chesapeake Bay. Condor 93:399-408.
Buehler, D. A., et al. 1991. Effects of human activity on bald eagle distribution on the northern Chesapeake Bay. J. Wildlife Management 55:282-290.
Buehler, D. A., et al. 1991. Nonbreeding bald eagle communal and solitary roosting behavior and roost habitat on the northern Chesapeake Bay. J. Wildlife Management 55:273-281.
Buehler, D. A., et al. 1991. Survival rates and population dynamics of bald eagles on Chesapeake Bay. J. Wildlife Management 55:608-613.
Buehler, D. A., et al. 1991. Winter microclimate of bald eagle roosts on the northern Chesapeake Bay. Auk 108:612-618.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. McNall. 1990. The birds of British Columbia. Volume 2. Nonpasserines: diurnal birds of prey through woodpeckers. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, B.C. 636 pp.
Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2003. All about birds [web application] Copyright 2003. Available March 29, 2005).
Curnutt, J. L. 1992. Dynamics of a year-round communal roost of bald eagles. Wilson Bull. 104:536-540.
Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.
Fraser, J. D., et al. 1983. Scheduling bald eagle reproductive surveys. Wildlife Society Bull. 11:13-16.
Gerrard, J. M., and G. R. Bortolotti. 1988. The bald eagle. Haunts and habits of a wilderness monarch. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 194 pp.
Green, N. 1985. The Bald Eagle. Pp 508-531 in R.L. DiSilvestro, ed., Audubon Wildlife Report 1985. National Audubon Society, New York.
Griffin, C. R., T. S. Baskett, and R. D. Sparrowe. 1982. Ecology of bald eagles wintering near a waterfowl concentration. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Special Science Report - Wildlife No. 247:1-12.
Grubb, T. G. 1980. An artificial bald eagle nest structure. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Research Note RM-383.
Grubb, T. G., and R. M. King. 1991. Assessing human disturbance of breeding bald eagles with classification tree models. J. Wildlife Management 55:500-511.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Haywood, D. D., and R. D. Ohmart. 1986. Utilization of benthic-feeding fish by inland breeding bald eagles. Condor 88:35-42.
Johnsgard, P. A. 1990. Hawks, eagles, and falcons of North America. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C. xvi + 403 pp.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
King, W. B., compiler. 1979. Endangered birds of the world. The International Council for Bird Preservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. [Reprinted in handbook form in 1981.]
Knight, R. L., and S. K. Knight. 1984. Responses of wintering bald eagles to boating activity. J. Wildlife Management 48:999-1004.
Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
Lincer, J. L., W. S. Clark, and M. N. LeFranc, Jr. 1979. Working bibliography of the bald eagle. Raptor Information Center, National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C. NWF Scientific/Technical Series No. 2. 219 pp.
Mahaffy, M. S., and L. D. Frenzel. 1987. Elicited territorial responses of northern bald eagles near active nests. Journal of Wildlife Management 51:551-554.
Matthews, J.R. and C.J. Moseley (eds.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species of North America. Volume 1. Plants, Mammals. xxiii + pp 1-560 + 33 pp. appendix + 6 pp. glossary + 16 pp. index. Volume 2. Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fishes, Mussels, Crustaceans, Snails, Insects, and Arachnids. xiii + pp. 561-1180. Beacham Publications, Inc., Washington, D.C.
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
Millsap, B. A. 1986. Status of wintering bald eagles in the coterminous 48 states. Wildlife Society Bull. 14:433-440.
Montopoli, G. J., and D. A. Anderson. 1991. A logistic model for the cumulative effects of human intervention on bald eagle habitat. J. Wildlife Management 55:290-293.
National Geographic Society. 1987. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 4.2. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: March 23, 2005).
Nye, Peter E. 1982. Restoring the bald eagle in New York. The Conservationist. July-August 1982.
Nye, Peter E. and L.H. Suring. 1978. Observations concerning a wintering popultion of bald eagles on an area in southeastern New York. New York Fish and Game Journal Vol. 25(2):91-107.
Nye, Peter E., D. Mildner, and E. Leone. 1994. An assessment of the status of bald eagles on Iona Island, New York and reccommendations for their management.
Nye, Peter. 2003. Annual efforts and outcome of New York nesting bald eagles.
Nye, Peter. 2005. Species group report for bald eagle. Pages 2-7 of Appendix A1, Species group reports for birds in: New York State comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy. New York Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany NY.
Nye, Peter. 2007. Annual efforts and outcome of New York nesting bald eagles.
Palmer, R. S., editor. 1988. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 4. [Diurnal raptors, part 1]. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. vii + 433 pp.
Pendleton, B. A. G., B. A. Millsap, K. W. Cline, and D. M. Bird. 1987. Raptor management techniques manual. National Wildlife Federation, Sci. and Tech. Ser. No. 10. 420 pp.
Root, T. 1988. Atlas of wintering North American birds: An analysis of Christmas Bird Count data. University of Chicago Press. 336 pp.
Sauer, J.R., J.E. Hines, and J. Fallon. 2007. The North American breeding bird survey, results and analysis 1966-2006. Version 10.13.2007. US Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD.
Sibley, C.G., and B.L. Monroe, Jr. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. xxiv + 1111 pp.
Singer, F.J. 1974. Status of the Osprey, Bald Eagle, and Golden Eagle in the Adirondacks. N.Y. Fish and Game Journal Vol 21(1):18-31.
Stalmaster, M. V. 1987. The bald eagle. Universe. 227 pp.
Steenhof, K. 1978. Management of wintering bald eagles. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-79/79, 55 pp.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Titus, K., and M. R. Fuller. 1990. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America. Journal of Wildlife Management 54:463-470.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. 406 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999. Proposed rule to remove the Bald Eagle in the lower 48 states from the list of endangered and threatened wildlife. Federal Register 64:36453-36464.


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Information for this guide was last updated on: 08-Aug-2017