New York Natural Heritage Program
Golden Eagle
Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus, 1758)

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.
Bates, J. W., and M. O. Moretti. 1994. Golden eagle (AQUILA CHRYSAETOS) population ecology in eastern Utah. Great Basin Nat. 54:248-255.
Bednarz, J. C., D. Klem Jr., L. J. Goodrich, and S. E. Senner. 1990. Migration counts of raptors at Hawk Mountain, Pennsylvania, as indicators of population trends, 1934-1986. The Auk 107:96-109.
Beecham, J. J., and M. N. Kochert. 1975. Breeding biology of the golden eagle in southwestern Idaho. Wilson Bulletin 87:506-513.
Brandes, D., and D.W. Ombalski. 2004. Modeling raptor migration pathways using a fluid-flow analogy. Journal of Raptor Research 38:195-207.
Brodeur, S., R. Decarie, D.M. Bird, and M. Fuller. 1996. Complete migration cycle of Golden Eagles breeding in northern Quebec. The Condor 98:293-299.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Dixon, J. B. 1937. The golden eagle in San Diego County, California. Condor 39:49-56.
Eaton, E.H. 1910. Birds of New York. Part 1. New York: University of State of New York. Albany, NY.
Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.
Johnsgard, P. A. 1990. Hawks, eagles, and falcons of North America. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C. xvi + 403 pp.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Kirk, D. A., D. Hussell, and E. Dunn. 1995. Raptor population status and trends in Canada. Bird Trends (Canadian Wildlife Service) 4:2-9.
Kochert, M.N., K. Steenhof, C.L. McIntyre, and E.H. Craig. 2002. Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). In The Birds of North America, No. 684 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). Philadelphia, PA.
Kochert, M.N., K. Steenhof, L.B. Carpenter, and J.M. Marzluff. 1999. Effects of fire on Golden Eagle territory occupancy and reproductive success. Journal of Wildlife Mangement 63:773-780.
LeFranc, M. N., Jr., and W. S. Clark. 1983. Working bibliography of the golden eagle and the genus AQUILA. National Wildife Federation Scientific & Technical Series No. 7, Washington, D.C. xxx + 222 + 12 appendix pp.
Lee, D. S., and W. R. Spofford. 1990. Nesting of golden eagles in the central and southern Appalachians. Wilson Bull. 102:693-698.
Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
McGahan, J. 1968. Ecology of the golden eagle. Auk 85:1-12.
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
Milsap, B. A., and S. L. Vana. 1984. Distribution of wintering golden eagles in the eastern United States. Wilson Bull. 96:692-701.
Murphy, R. 1965. The golden eagle. N.Y. 157 pp.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
Palmer, R. S., ed. 1988. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 5. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven. 465 pp.
Pedrini, P., and F. Sergio. 2001. Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) density and productivity in relation to land development and forest expansion in the Alps. Bird Study 48:194-199.
Pendleton, B. A. G., B. A. Millsap, K. W. Cline, and D. M. Bird. 1987. Raptor management techniques manual. National Wildlife Federation, Sci. and Tech. Ser. No. 10. 420 pp.
Phillips, R. L., J. L. Cummings, and J. D. Berry. 1991. Responses of breeding golden eagles to relocation. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 19:430-434.
Robert, M. 1996. Aquila chrysaetos. Pages 396-399 in J. Gauthier and Y. Aubry, editors. The breeding birds of Quebec. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Montreal.
Root, T. 1988. Atlas of wintering North American birds: An analysis of Christmas Bird Count data. University of Chicago Press. 336 pp.
Singer, F.J. 1974. Status of the Osprey, Bald Eagle, and Golden Eagle in the Adirondacks. N.Y. Fish and Game Journal Vol 21(1):18-31.
Spofford, W. 1971a. The Golden Eagle-rediscovered. The Conservationist 1971:6-8.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Watson, J. 1997. The Golden Eagle. T and AD Poyser, London.


Funding from the NYSDEC Hudson River Estuary Program made the initial development of these guides possible.

Additional support has been provided by

Website architect: Andrew Blick.
Modifications and updates: David Marston and Matthew Buff.

Global data are provided by NatureServe and its Natural Heritage member programs, a leading source of information about rare and endangered species, and threatened ecosystems.

New York Natural Heritage Program
625 Broadway, 5th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-4757
Phone: (518) 402-8935 Fax: (518) 402-8925

Please send comments and suggestions to: acris [at] nynhp [dot] org

To continue building a comprehensive, up-to-date database of information on the locations of rare species in New York State, we invite your contributions. If you have information on a rare species, please fill out our Online Rare Species Reporting Form. If you have information on ecological communities, please fill out a Natural Heritage Reporting Form (two-page MS Word document).

This guide was authored by:
Information for this guide was last updated on: 07-Aug-2017