New York Natural Heritage Program
Black Rail
Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789)

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online:
Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.
Angradi, T.R., S.M. Hagan, and K.W. Able. 2001. Vegetation type and the intertidal macroinvertebrate fauna of a brackish marsh: Phragmites vs. Spartina.
Bent, A. C. 1926. Life histories of North American marsh birds. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 135.
Bull, John. 1964. Birds of the New York area. New York: Harper and Row Publications 540 pp.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
California Department of Fish and Game (CDF&G). 1990. 1989 annual report on the status of California's state listed threatened and endangered plants and animals. 188 pp.
Carter, M., C. Hunter, D. Pashley, and D. Petit. 1998. The Watch List. Bird Conservation, Summer 1998:10.
Carter, M., G. Fenwick, C. Hunter, D. Pashley, D. Petit, J. Price, and J. Trapp. 1996. Watchlist 1996: For the future. Field Notes 50(3):238-240.
Davidson, L. M. 1992. Black rail, LATERALLUS JAMAICENSIS. Pages 119-134 in K. J. Schneider and D. M. Pence, editors. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the Northeast. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, Massachusetts. 400 pp.
Eaton, E.H. 1910. Birds of New York. Part 1. New York: University of State of New York. Albany, NY.
Eddleman, W. R., F. L. Knopf, B. Meanley, F. A. Reid, and R. Zembal. 1988. Conservation of North American rallids. Wilson Bull. 100:458-475.
Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.
Erwin, R. M., G.M. Sanders, and D.J. Prosser. 2004. Changes in lagoonal marsh morphology at selected northeastern Atlantic Coast sites of significance to migratory waterbirds. Wetlands 24:891-903.
Evens, J. G., et al. 1991. Distribution, relative abundance and status of the California black rail in western North America. Condor 93:952-966.
Evens, J., and G. W. Page. 1986. Predation on black rails during high tides in salt marshes. Condor 88:107-109.
Flores, R. E. and W. R. Eddleman. 1991. Ecology of the California Black Rail in southwestern Arizona. Final Rept., U.S. Bur. Reclam., Yuma Proj. Off. and Arizona Dept. Game & Fish, Yuma, AZ.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 279 pp.
Huey, L. M. 1916. The Farallon Rails of San Diego County. Condor 18:58-62.
Kerlinger, P. and C. Sutton. 1989. Black Rail in New Jersey. Records of New Jersey Birds 15:22-26.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Kolker, A.S. 2005. The impacts of climate variability and anthropogenic activities on salt marsh accretion and loss on Long Island. Dissertation. State University of New York at Stony Brook. 759 pp.
Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
Montalto, F.A. and T.S. Steenhuis. 2004. The link between hydrology and restoration of tidal marshes in the New York/New Jersey Estuary. Wetlands 24: 414-425.
National Geographic Society (NGS). 1983. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1985. Final breeding bird distribution maps, 1980-1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.
Post, W. and F. Enders. 1969. Reappearance of the black rail on Long Island. Kingbird 19:189-191.
Raffaele, H. A. 1983. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Fondo Educativo Interamericano, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 255 pp.
Repking, C. F. 1975. Distribution and habitat requirements of the Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) along the lower Colorado River. Master's thesis. Arizona State Univ. Tempe.
Reynard, G. B. 1972. Vocalizations of the female Black Rail. Cassinia 53:24-26.
Ripley, S. D. 1977. Rails of the world. M.F. Feheley Publishers, Ltd., Toronto. 406 pp. [publication by same name published by Smithsonian 1984; same?]
Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.
Walsh, J.V.E, R. Kane, and T. Halliwell. 1999. Birds of New Jersey. New Jersey Audubon Society, Bernardsville, NJ.
Wayne, A. T. 1905. Breeding of the Little Black Rail (Porzana jamaicensis) in South Carolina. Warbler 1:33-35.
Weske, J. S. 1969. An ecological study of the Black Rail in Dorchester County, Maryland. Master's Thesis. Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY.
Wilbur, S. R. 1974. The literature of the California Black Rail. Spec. Sci. Rept.-Wildl. No. 179. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Washington, D.C.
Wilson, M.D., B.D. Watts, and D.F. Brinker. 2007. Status review of Chesapeake Bay marsh lands and breeding marsh birds. Waterbirds 30:122-137.


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This guide was authored by: Kelly A. Perkins
Information for this guide was last updated on: 08-Aug-2017