New York Natural Heritage Program
Piping Plover
Charadrius melodus Ord, 1824

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Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Burger, J. 1987. Physical and social determinants of nest-site selection in piping plover in New Jersey. Condor 89: 811-818.
Cairns, W. E. 1977. Breeding biology and behaviour of the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) in southern Nova Scotia. M. Sc. thesis. Dalhousie Univ. Halifax, N.S.
Cohen, J.B., E.H. Wunker, and J.D. Fraser. 2008. Substrate and vegetation selection by nesting Piping Plovers. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(2): 404-407.
Collar, N. J., L. P. Gonzaga, N. Krabbe, A. Madroņo-Nieto, L. G. Naranjo, T. A. Parker III, and D. C. Wege. 1992. Threatened Birds of the Americas. The ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. 3rd edition, Part 2. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK.
Cross, R. R. 1992. Effects of predator control on piping plover reproductive success. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 49.
Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.
Elias, S.P., J.D. Fraser, and P.A. Buckley. 2000. Piping Plover brood foraging ecology on New York Barrier Islands. Journal of Wildlife Management 64(2): 346-354.
Elias-Gerken, S. P., J. D. Fraser, and P. A. Buckley. 1995. Piping plover habitat suitability on central Long Island, New York barrier islands. USDI National Park Service, North Atlantic region, Tech. Rep. NPS/NAROSS/NRTR/95-29. xvii + 246 pp.
Elliott-Smith, Elise and Susan M. Haig. 2004. Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: doi:10.2173/bna.2
Evers, D. C. 1992. A guide to Michigan's endangered wildlife. Univ. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. viii + 103 pp.
Flemming, S. P., R. D. Chiasson, P. C. Smith, P. J. Austin-Smith, and R. P. Bancroft. 1988. Piping Plover status in Nova Scotia related to its reproductive and behavioral responses to human disturbance. Journal of Field Ornithology 59:321-330.
Goldin, M. R., et al. 1992. The effects of human disturbance and off-road vehicles on piping plover (Charadrius melodus) behavior and reproductive success. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 65.
Goldin, M.R. 1993. Effects of human disturbance and off-road vehicles on piping plover reproductive success and behavior at Breezy Point, Gateway National Recreation Area, New York. M.S. Thesis. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts. 128 pp.
Goldin, M.R. and J.V. Regosin. 1998. Chick behavior, habitat use, and reproductive success of piping plovers at Goosewing Beach, Rhode Island. J. Field Ornithol. 69(2): 228-234.
Haig, S. M. 1986. Piping Plover distribution and biology. Endangered Species Information System Workbooks. U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, DC.
Haig, S. M. and L. W. Oring. 1985. The distribution and status of the Piping Plover throughout the annual cycle. J. Field Ornithol. 56:334-345.
Haig, S.M. 1992. Distribution and status of piping plovers in winter. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 69.
Haig, S.M. and J.H. Plissner. 1993. Distribution and abundance of piping plovers: results and implications of the 1991 international census. Condor 95:145-156.
Haig, S.M. and L.W. Oring. 1988. Distribution and dispersal in the piping plover. Auk 105:630-638.
Haig, S.M. and L.W. Oring. 1988. Genetic differentiation of piping plovers across North America. Auk 105:260-267.
Haig, S.M. and L.W. Oring. 1988. Mate, site, and territory fidelity in piping plovers. Auk 105:268-277.
Hecht, A. 1992. Status of the Atlantic coast piping plover recovery program. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 72.
Hoopes, E. M., C. R. Griffin, and S. M. Melvin. 1992. Foraging ecology of piping plovers in Massachusetts. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 74.
Johnson, C. M. and G. A. Baldassarre. 1988. Aspects of the wintering ecology of Piping Plovers in coastal Alabama. Wilson Bull. 100:214-233.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
Loegering, J. P. and J. D. Fraser. 1995. Factors affecting Piping Plover Chick survival in different brood-rearing habitats. J. Wildl. Manage. 59:646-655.
Mabee, T. J. and V. B. Estelle. 2000. Assessing the effectiveness of predator exclosures for plovers. Wilson Bulletin 112:14-20.
Mayer, P. M., and M. R. Ryan. 1991. Electric fences reduce mammalian predation on piping plover nests and chicks. Wildlife Society Bull. 19:59-63.
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
McIntyre, A.F., J.A. Heath, and J. Jannsen. 2010. Trends in Piping Plover Reproduction at Jones Beach State Park, NY, 1995-2007. Northeastern Naturalist 17(3): 493-504.
Melvin, S. M., et al. 1992. Demographic responses to management of piping plovers on outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 96.
Murphy, R. K., I. M. G. Michaud, D. R. C. Prescott, J. S. Ivan, B. J. Anderson, and M. L. French-Pombier. 2003. Predation on adult Piping Plovers at predator exclosures. Waterbirds 26:150-155.
Murphy, R. K., R. J. Greenwood, J. S. Ivan, and K. A. Smith. 2003. Predator exclusion methods for managing endangered shorebirds: are two barriers better than one? Waterbirds 156-159.
National Geographic Society (NGS). 1983. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1985. Final breeding bird distribution maps, 1980-1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 2010. Long Island Colonial Waterbirds Survey Reports from 1985 through 2009.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Piping Plover Fact Sheet. Available online at:
Nicholls, J. L., and G. A. Baldassarre. 1990. Habitat associations of piping plovers wintering in the United States. Wilson Bull. 102:581-590.
Patterson, M. E., J. D. Fraser, and J. W. Roggenbuck. 1991. Factors affecting piping plover productivity on Assateague Island. J. Wildlife Management 55:525-531.
Patterson, M. E., J. P. Loegering, and J. D. Fraser. 1992. Piping plover breeding biology and foraging ecology on Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 103.
Peterson, D.M. 1984 Long Island tern and piping plover survey. Cornell University Laboratory of Ornithology, Seatuck Research Program, Islip, NY. 56 pp.
Powell, A. N. 1991. Great Lakes piping plovers: recovery or extirpation? Endangered Species Update 8(9-10):1-4.
Powell, A. N., and F. J. Cuthbert. 1992. Habitat and reproductive success of piping plovers nesting on Great Lakes islands. Wilson Bull. 104:155-161.
Rimmer, D. W., and R. D. Deblinger. 1990. Use of predator exclosures to protect piping plover nests. J. Field Ornithology 61:217-223.
Staine, K. J., and J. Burger. 1994. Nocturnal foraging behavior of breeding piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) in New Jersey. Auk 111:579-587.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1989. 1989 summary U.S. Atlantic coast piping plover. USFWS, Northeast region, Newton Corner, MA.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. 406 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1995. Piping plover (Charadrius melodus), Atlantic coast population, revised recovery plan. Techinical/agency draft. Hadley, Massachusetts. 238 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region. 1994. Guidelines for managing recreational activities in Piping Plover breeding habitat on the U.S. Atlantic Coast to avoid take under Setion 9 of the Endanged Species Act.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. 1991 status update, U.S. Atlantic coast piping plover. USFWS, Northeast Region, Newton Corner, Massachusetts.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Draft revised recovery plan for piping plovers, Charadrius melodus, breeding on the Great Lakes and Northern Great Plains of the United States. USFWS, Twin Cities, Minnesota. v + 121 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2010. Managing beaches for Piping Plovers in New England: What landowners need to know. Available online at:
Wilcox, L. 1959. A twenty year banding study of the Piping Plover. Auk 75:129-152.
Wilcox, L. 1959. A twenty-year banding study of the piping plover. Auk 76:129-152.


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This guide was authored by: Kelly A. Perkins
Information for this guide was last updated on: 07-Aug-2017