New York Natural Heritage Program
Laughing Gull
Leucophaeus atricilla Linnaeus, 1758
Birds
Links

References
American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
Belant, J. L., and R. A. Dolbeer. 1993. Population status of nesting laughing gulls in the United States 1977-1991. Am. Birds 47:220-224.
Bent, A.C. 1921. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 113. Washington, D.C.
Bernhardt, Glenn, E. Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, Brian E. Washburn, Richard B. Chipman, and Laura C. Francoeur. 2010. Temporal variation in terrestrial invertebrate consumption by Laughing gulls in New York. The American Midland Naturalist 163 (2): 442-454.
Buckley, F.G., M. Gochfeld and P.A. Buckley. 1978. Breeding laughing gulls return to Long Island. Kingbird 28:203-207.
Buckley, P. A., and F. G. Buckley. 1984. Seabirds of the north and middle Atlantic coast of the United States: their status and conservation. Pages 101-133 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Buckley, P.A and F.G. Buckley. 1984. Expanding double-crested cormorant and laughing gull populations on Long Island, NY. Kingbird 34(3):146-155.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Burger, J., and M. Gochfield. 1985. Nest site selection bylaughing gulls: comparison of tropical colonies (Culebra, Puerto Rico) with temperate colonies (New Jersey). Condor 87:364-373.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.
Spendelow, J. A. and S. R. Patton. 1988. National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-1982. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(5). x + 326 pp.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
The American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). Banks, R.C., R.T. Chesser, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2008. Forty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 125(3):758-768.
Wasilco M. 2006. Species group report for salt marsh breeding birds. Pages 139-146 of Appendix A1, Species group reports for birds in: New York State comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy. New York Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany NY.

Acknowledgements

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This guide was authored by:
Information for this guide was last updated on: 08-Aug-2017