New York Natural Heritage Program
Caspian Tern
Hydroprogne caspia (Pallas, 1770)
Birds
Links

References
American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 2006. Forty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 123(3):1926-936.
Bent, A.C. 1921. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 113. Washington, D.C.
Buckley, P. A., and F. G. Buckley. 1984. Seabirds of the north and middle Atlantic coast of the United States: their status and conservation. Pages 101-133 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Conover, Michael. 1983. Female-female pairings in Caspian Terns. Condor 85:346-349.
Cunningham, R. L. 1966. Caspian Tern feeding upon carrion. Wilson Bulletin 78:319.
Cuthbert, F. J. 1981. Caspian Tern colonies in the Great Lakes: responses to an unpredictable environment. Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Cuthbert, F. J. 1985. Mate retention in Caspian terns. Condor 87:74-78.
Cuthbert, F. J. 1988. Reproductive success and colony-site tenacity in Caspian terns. Auk 105:339-344.
Cuthbert, F. J., and L. R. Wires. 1999. Caspian Tern (STERNA CASPIA). No. 403 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 32pp.
Eaton, E.H. 1910. Birds of New York. Part 1. New York: University of State of New York. Albany, NY.
Evans, P. G. H. 1984b. Status and conservation of seabirds in northwest Europe (excluding Norways and the USSR). Pages 293-321 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Fetterolf, P. M. and H. Blokpoel. 1983. Reproductive performance of Caspian Terns at a new colony on Lake Ontario, 1979-1981. Journal of Field Ornithology 54(2):170-186.
Gill, R. E., Jr. 1976. Notes on the foraging of nesting Caspian terns, HYDROPROGNE CASPIA (Pallas). California Fish and Game 62:155.
Gill, R. E., Jr., and L. R. Mewaldt. 1983. Pacific coast Caspian terns: dynamics of an expanding population. Auk 100:369-381.
Grasman, K.A., G.A. Fox, P.F. Scanlon, and J.P. Ludwig. 1996. Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian Terns and Herring Gulls from the Great Lakes: An ecoepidemiological study. Environmenal Health Perspectives 104(4):829-842.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Hyslop, C., and J. Kennedy, editors. 1992. Bird trends: a report on results of national ornithological surveys in Canada. Number 2, Autumn 1992. Migratory Birds Conservation Division, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario. 20 pp.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Kress, S. W., E. H. Weinstein, and I. C. T. Nisbet. 1983. The status of tern populations in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Colonial Waterbirds 6:84-106.
Ludwig, J. P. 1965. Biology and structure of the Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia) population of the Great Lakes from 1896 - 1964. Bird-Banding 36(4):217-233.
National Geographic Society (NGS). 1999. Field guide to the birds of North America. Third edition. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. 480 pp.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
Neuman, J. and H. Blokpoel. 1997. Great Lakes fact sheet: The terns of the Canadian Great Lakes. Canadian Wildlife Service.
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2008. Biotics Database. Albany, NY.
New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1985. Final breeding bird distribution maps, 1980-1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 1986. New York State Breeding Bird Atlas Database. Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of State and New York Department of Environmental Conservation. 1993. Coastal Fish and Wildlife Habitat Rating Form Little Galloo Island. Online. Available: http://www.nyswaterfronts.com/downloads/pdfs/sig_hab/GreatLakes/Little_Galloo_Island.pdf
Penland, S. 1981. Natural history of the Caspian Tern in Grays Harbor, Washington. Murrelet 62:66-72.
Penland, S. 1982. Distribution and status of the Caspian Tern in Washington state. Murrelet 63:73-79.
Penland, S. T. 1984. An alternative origin of supernormal clutches in Caspian Terns. Condor 86:496.
Quinn, J. S. 1984. Egg predation reduced by nest covers during research activities in a Caspian tern colony. Colonial Waterbirds 7:149-151.
Quinn, J. S. and J. Sirdevan. 1998. Experimental measurement of nesting substrate preference in Caspian Terns, Sterna caspia, and the successful colonization of human constructed islands. Biological Conservation 85:63-68.
Shugart, G.W., M.A. Fitch, and V.M. Shugart. 1981. Minimizing investigator disturbance in observational studies of colonial waterbirds: Access to blind through tunnels. Wilson Bulletin 93:565-569.
Smith, G. 2008. Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia. In K. McGowan and K. Corwin (Eds.) The atlas of breeding birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Smith, G. A. 1987. A selected and annotated bibliography for use in management of the Caspian tern (STERNA CASPIA). New York Dept. Environ. Conserv., Delmar, New York. 29 pp.
Spendelow, J. A. and S. R. Patton. 1988. National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-1982. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(5). x + 326 pp.
Struger J. and D. V. Weseloh. 1985. Great Lakes Caspian Terns: egg contaminants and biological implications. Colonial Waterbirds 8(2): 142-149.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Weseloh, D.V.C. and H. Blokpoel. 1993. Caspian Tern nesting at Little Galloo Island: a new nesting species for New York State. The Kingbird 43(1):6-12.
Wires L.R., and F.J. Cuthbert. 2000. Trends in Caspian Tern numbers and distribution in North America: A review. Waterbirds 23(3): 388-404.

Acknowledgements

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Information for this guide was last updated on: 08-Aug-2017