New York Natural Heritage Program
Caspian Tern
Hydroprogne caspia (Pallas, 1770)

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Bent, A.C. 1921. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 113. Washington, D.C.
Buckley, P. A., and F. G. Buckley. 1984. Seabirds of the north and middle Atlantic coast of the United States: their status and conservation. Pages 101-133 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Conover, Michael. 1983. Female-female pairings in Caspian Terns. Condor 85:346-349.
Cunningham, R. L. 1966. Caspian Tern feeding upon carrion. Wilson Bulletin 78:319.
Cuthbert, F. J. 1981. Caspian Tern colonies in the Great Lakes: responses to an unpredictable environment. Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Cuthbert, F. J. 1985. Mate retention in Caspian terns. Condor 87:74-78.
Cuthbert, F. J. 1988. Reproductive success and colony-site tenacity in Caspian terns. Auk 105:339-344.
Cuthbert, F. J., and L. R. Wires. 1999. Caspian Tern (STERNA CASPIA). No. 403 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 32pp.
Eaton, E.H. 1910. Birds of New York. Part 1. New York: University of State of New York. Albany, NY.
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Fetterolf, P. M. and H. Blokpoel. 1983. Reproductive performance of Caspian Terns at a new colony on Lake Ontario, 1979-1981. Journal of Field Ornithology 54(2):170-186.
Gill, R. E., Jr. 1976. Notes on the foraging of nesting Caspian terns, HYDROPROGNE CASPIA (Pallas). California Fish and Game 62:155.
Gill, R. E., Jr., and L. R. Mewaldt. 1983. Pacific coast Caspian terns: dynamics of an expanding population. Auk 100:369-381.
Grasman, K.A., G.A. Fox, P.F. Scanlon, and J.P. Ludwig. 1996. Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian Terns and Herring Gulls from the Great Lakes: An ecoepidemiological study. Environmenal Health Perspectives 104(4):829-842.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Hyslop, C., and J. Kennedy, editors. 1992. Bird trends: a report on results of national ornithological surveys in Canada. Number 2, Autumn 1992. Migratory Birds Conservation Division, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario. 20 pp.
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Kress, S. W., E. H. Weinstein, and I. C. T. Nisbet. 1983. The status of tern populations in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Colonial Waterbirds 6:84-106.
Ludwig, J. P. 1965. Biology and structure of the Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia) population of the Great Lakes from 1896 - 1964. Bird-Banding 36(4):217-233.
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Neuman, J. and H. Blokpoel. 1997. Great Lakes fact sheet: The terns of the Canadian Great Lakes. Canadian Wildlife Service.
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2008. Biotics Database. Albany, NY.
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New York State Department of State and New York Department of Environmental Conservation. 1993. Coastal Fish and Wildlife Habitat Rating Form Little Galloo Island. Online. Available:
Penland, S. 1981. Natural history of the Caspian Tern in Grays Harbor, Washington. Murrelet 62:66-72.
Penland, S. 1982. Distribution and status of the Caspian Tern in Washington state. Murrelet 63:73-79.
Penland, S. T. 1984. An alternative origin of supernormal clutches in Caspian Terns. Condor 86:496.
Quinn, J. S. 1984. Egg predation reduced by nest covers during research activities in a Caspian tern colony. Colonial Waterbirds 7:149-151.
Quinn, J. S. and J. Sirdevan. 1998. Experimental measurement of nesting substrate preference in Caspian Terns, Sterna caspia, and the successful colonization of human constructed islands. Biological Conservation 85:63-68.
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Smith, G. 2008. Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia. In K. McGowan and K. Corwin (Eds.) The atlas of breeding birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Smith, G. A. 1987. A selected and annotated bibliography for use in management of the Caspian tern (STERNA CASPIA). New York Dept. Environ. Conserv., Delmar, New York. 29 pp.
Spendelow, J. A. and S. R. Patton. 1988. National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-1982. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(5). x + 326 pp.
Struger J. and D. V. Weseloh. 1985. Great Lakes Caspian Terns: egg contaminants and biological implications. Colonial Waterbirds 8(2): 142-149.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Weseloh, D.V.C. and H. Blokpoel. 1993. Caspian Tern nesting at Little Galloo Island: a new nesting species for New York State. The Kingbird 43(1):6-12.
Wires L.R., and F.J. Cuthbert. 2000. Trends in Caspian Tern numbers and distribution in North America: A review. Waterbirds 23(3): 388-404.


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Information for this guide was last updated on: 08-Aug-2017