New York Natural Heritage Program
Forster's Tern
Sterna forsteri Nuttall, 1834

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
Andrle, R. F., and J. R. Carrol, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York. 551 pp.
Bent, A.C. 1921. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 113. Washington, D.C.
Bluso-Demers, J.D., J.T. Ackerman, and J.Y. Takekawa. 2010. Colony attendance patterns by mated Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) using an automated data-logging receiver system. Ardea 98:59-65.
Bull, John. 1964. Birds of the New York area. New York: Harper and Row Publications 540 pp.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Burger, J. 1989. Least Tern populations in coastal New Jersey: monitoring and management of a regionally-endangered species. Journal of Coastal Research 5:801-811.
Byrd, M. A., and D. W. Johnston. 1991. Birds. Pages 477-537 in K. Terwilliger, coordinator. Virginia's endangered species: proceedings of a symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publ. Co., Blacksburg, Virginia.
Clapp, R. B., and P. A. Buckley. 1984. Status and conservation of seabirds in the southeastern United States. Pages 135-155 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Cuthbert, F. J., and M.-Y. Louis. 1993. The Forster's tern in Minnesota: status, distribution, and reproductive success. Wilson Bull. 105:184-187.
Fraser, G.S. 1994. Feeding and nesting behaviors of the Forster's Tern on Lake Osakis, Minnesota. Master's thesis. North Dakota State Univ. Fargo.
Hall, J.A. 1989. Aspects of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri) reproduction on cobblestone islands in southcentral Washington. Northwest Sci. 63:90-95.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 279 pp.
Hartig, E.K., V. Gornitz, A. Kolker, F. Mushacke, and D. Fallon. 2002. Anthropogenic and climate-change impacts on salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, New York City. Wetlands 22:71-89.
Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Kolker, A.S. 2005. The impacts of climate variability and anthropogenic activities on salt marsh accretion and loss on Long Island. Dissertation. State University of New York at Stony Brook. 759 pp.
Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
Martin, R.P., and P.J. Zwank. 1987. Habitat suitability index models: Forster's Tern (breeding)-- Gulf and Atlantic coasts. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report, no. 82 (10.131). Http://
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
Mcnicholl, M.K. 1971. The breeding biology and ecology of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri) at Delta, Manitoba. Master's thesis. Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
Mcnicholl, M.K., P.E. Lowther, and J.A. Hall. 2001. Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). In: The Birds of North America, No. 595 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Molina, K.C., R. M. Erwin, E. Palacios, E. Mellink, and N. Seto. 2010. Status Review and Conservation Recommendations for the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) in North America. Biological Technical Publication BTP-R1013-2010. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Montalto, F.A., and T.S. Steenhuis. 2004. The link between hydrology and restoration of tidal marshes in the New York/ New Jersey estuary. Wetlands 24:414-425.
National Geographic Society (NGS). 1983. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.
National Geographic Society (NGS). 1999. Field guide to the birds of North America. Third edition. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. 480 pp.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1984. Preliminary species distribution maps, 1980-1984. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1985. Final breeding bird distribution maps, 1980-1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.
Oberholser, H.C. 1974. The bird life of Texas. 2 vols. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin.
Schreffler L., J.K. Leiser, and T.L. Master. 2010. Costs and benefits of foraging alone or in mixed-species aggregations for Forster's Terns. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122:95-101.
Sommers, Laura, D., Daniel L. Rosenblatt and Marcelo J. DelPuerto. 2001. 1998-1999 Long Island Colonial waterbird and Piping Plover Survey. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Nongame and Habitat Unit. Delmar, NY and Region 1, Stony Brook, New York.
Spendelow, J. A. and S. R. Patton. 1988. National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-1982. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(5). x + 326 pp.
Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Van Rossem, A. J. 1933. Terns as destroyers of birds' eggs. Condor 35:49-51.
Zardusky, J. 1981. Forster's Tern breeding on Long Island. Kingbird 31:212-213.


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This guide was authored by: Kelly A. Perkins
Information for this guide was last updated on: 10-Aug-2017