New York Natural Heritage Program
Least Tern
Sternula antillarum Lesson, 1847

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Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.
Atwood, J. L. and P. R. Kelly. 1984. Fish dropped on breeding colonies as indicators of Least Tern food habits. Wilson Bulletin 96:34-47.
Atwood, J. L., and B. W. Massey. 1988. Site fidelity of least terns in California. Condor 90:389-394.
Bent, A.C. 1921. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 113. Washington, D.C.
Blus, L. J., and R. M. Prouty. 1979. Organochlorine pollutants and population status of least terns in South Carolina. Wilson Bull. 91:62-71.
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Burger, J. 1984. Colony stability in least terns. Condor 86:61-67.
Burger, J. 1988. Social attraction in nesting least terns: effects of numbers, spacing, and pair bonds. Condor 90:575-582.
Burger, J. 1989. Least Tern populations in coastal New Jersey: monitoring and management of a regionally-endangered species. Journal of Coastal Research 5:801-811.
Burger, J., and M. Gochfeld. 1990. Nest site selection in least terns (Sterna antillarum) in New Jersey and New York. Colonial Waterbirds 13:31-40.
Clapp, R. B., and P. A. Buckley. 1984. Status and conservation of seabirds in the southeastern United States. Pages 135-155 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Cowgill, R. W. 1989. Nesting success of least terns on two South Carolina barrier islands in relation to human disturbance. Chat 53:81-87.
Cruickshank, A.D. 1942. Birds around New York City. American Museum of Natural History Handbook no.13. American Museum Press, New York.
Dorr, D. K. 1976. Least tern, Sterna albifrons, nesting habitat in Maine and its relevance to the Critical Areas Program. Maine Critical Areas Program, Planning Report No. 11.21 pp.
Downing, R. L. 1980. Survey of interior least tern nesting populations. Am. Birds 34:209-211.
Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.
Engstrom, R. T., G. S. Butcher, and J. D. Lowe. 1990. Population trends in the least tern (Sterna antillarum) from Maine to Virginia: 1975-1986. Pages 130-138 in J. R. Sauer and S. Droege, editors. Survey designs and statistical methods for the estimation of avian population trends. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 90(1)). 166 pp.
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Garcia, A. and G. Ceballos. 1995. Reproduction and breeding success of California Least Terns in Jalisco, Mexico. Condor 97:1084-1087.
Giraud, J.P., Jr. 1844. Birds of Long Island. Wiley & Putnam, New York.
Gochfeld, M. 1983. Colony site selection by least terns: physical attributes of sites. Colonial Waterbirds 6:205-213.
Hagan, J. M., III, and D. W. Johnston, editors. 1992. Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. xiii + 609 pp.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Houde, P. 1977. Low productivity of terns on Hicks Island, 1975. Proc. Linn. Soc. 73:49-57.
Keane, K. 1987. Sex roles in the parental care of Least Terns (Sterna antillarum). Master's Thesis. California State Univ., Long Beach, CA.
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Kotliar, N. B. 1984. Colony site selection and abandonment by least terns in New Jersey. M.S. thesis, Rutgers Univ.
Kotliar, N. B., and J. Burger. 1984. The use of decoys to attract least terns (Sterna antillarum) to abandoned colony sites in New Jersey. Colonial Waterbirds 7:134-138.
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Litwin, S. 1983. Long Island least tern and piping plover survey. Seatuck Research Program, Cornell Univ. and New York Dept. Environ. Conservation. 35 pp.
MacLean, D. C., et al. 1991. Nesting biology, habitat use, and inter-colony movements of the least tern (Sterna antillarum) on Long Island, N.Y. The Seatuck Research Program in cooperation with the New York State Dept. of Environ. Conserv. 70 pp.
Massey, B. W. 1976. Vocal differences between American least terns and the European little tern. Auk 93:760-773.
Massey, B. W., and J. L. Atwood. 1978. Plumages of the least tern. Bird-banding 49:360-371.
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Minsky, D. 1980. Preventing fox predation at a least tern colony with an electric fence. J. Field Ornithology 51(2):17-18.
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Thompson, B. C., J. A. Jackson, J. Burger, L. A. Hill, E. M. Kirsch, and J. L. Atwood. 1997. Least Tern (Sterna antillarum). In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The Birds of North America, No. 290. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 32 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. 406 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Recovery plan for the interior population of the least tern (Sterna antillarum). USFWS, Twin Cities, Minnesota. 90 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1980. Selected vertebrate endangered species of the seacoast of the United States-- California least tern. FWS/OBS-80/01.20. 8 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1983. Marine birds of the southeastern United States and Glf of Mexico. Part III. Charadriiformes. Pages 599-635.
Whitman, P. L. 1988. Biology and conservation of the endangered interior least tern: a literature review. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(3). 22 pp.
Wolk, R. G. 1954. Some preliminary observations on the reproductive behavior of the least tern.
Zickefoose, J. 1985. Least tern/piping plover recovery program. Final report to The Nature Conservancy, Connecticut Chapter. 22 pp.
van Halewyn, R., and R. L. Norton. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in the Caribbean. Pages 169-222 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2


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This guide was authored by: Kelly A. Perkins
Information for this guide was last updated on: 10-Aug-2017