New York Natural Heritage Program
Black Tern
Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758)

Adams, David J. 1990. Population status and breeding ecology of the black tern (Chlidonias niger) at the Iroquois/Tonawanda/Oak Orchard complex, 1990. Unpublished report, Saint John Fisher College, Rochester, New York. 66 pp.
American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.
Baggerman, B., et al. 1956. Observations on the behavior of the black tern, CHLIDONIAS NIGER L., in the breeding area. Ardea 44:2-71.
Bailey, P. F. 1977. The breeding biology of the black tern. M.S. thesis, Univ. Wisconsin, Oshkosh. 67 pp.
Beintema, A.J. 1997. European black terns (Chlidonias niger) in trouble: examples of dietary problems. Colonial Waterbirds 20:558-565.
Bent, A.C. 1921. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 113. Washington, D.C.
Bergman, R. D., P. Swain, and M. W. Weller. 1970. A comparative study of nesting Forster's and black terns. Wilson Bull. 82:435-444.
Brown, M., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1986. Implications of marsh size and isolation for marsh bird management. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:392-397.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Carroll, J.R. 1988. Status and breeding ecology of the black tern (Chlidonias niger) in New York. Kingbird 38:159-172
Carter, M., G. Fenwick, C. Hunter, D. Pashley, D. Petit, J. Price, and J. Trapp. 1996. Watchlist 1996: For the future. Field Notes 50(3):238-240.
Chapman, B. A., and L. S. Forbes. 1984. Observations on detrimental effects of great blue herons on breeding black terns. J. Field Ornithol. 55:251-252.
Chapman-Moser, B. 1987. Factors influencing reproductive success and nesting strategies in black terns. Ph.D. thesis, Simon Fraser Univ., British Columbia.
Custer, T.W., and C.M. Custer. 1996. Nocturnal incubation by male Black Terns (abstract). Colonial Waterbird Society Bulletin 20:56.
Cuthbert, N. L. 1954. A nesting study of the black tern in Michigan. Auk 71:36-63.
Dunn, E. H. 1979. Nesting biology and development of young in Ontario black terns. Can. Field-Nat. 93:276-281.
Dunn, E.H., and D.J. Agro. 1995. Black tern (Chlidonias niger). In The Birds of North America, No. 147 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.
Eaton, E.H. 1910. Birds of New York. Part 1. New York: University of State of New York. Albany, NY.
Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.
Eisenmann, E. 1951. Northern birds summering in Panama. Wilson Bull. 63:181-185.
Faber, R. A., and J. Nosek. 1985. Preliminary assessment of tern reproduction in relation to environmental contaminants on the Mississippi River. Unpubl. report to Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 22 pp.
Faber, R.A., and R. Elbert. 1996. Relationship of organic contaminants to incubation behavior in Black Terns (abstract). Colonial Waterbird Society Bulletin 20:56.
Firstencel, H. 1987. The black tern (CHLIDONIAS NIGER Linn.): breeding ecology in upstate New York and results of pesticide residue analysis. M.S. thesis, State Univ. of New York, Rockport. 63 pp.
Gerson, H. 1987. The status of the black tern (CHLIDONIAS NIGER) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Toronto, Ontario. 54 pp.
Gilbert, A.T., and F.A. Servello. 2004. Water level dynamics in wetlands and nesting success of black terns in Maine. Waterbirds 28:181-187.
Gilbert, A.T., and F.A. Servello. 2005. Insectivory versus piscivory in Black Terns: implications for food provisioning and growth of chicks. Waterbirds 28:436-444.
Gleason, R.A., N.H. Euliss, D.E. Hubbard, and W.G. Duffy. 2003. Effects of sediment load on emergence of aquatic invertebrates and plants from wetland soil egg and seed banks. Wetlands 23:26-34.
Goodwin, R. E. 1960. A study of the ethology of the black tern, CHLIDONIAS NIGER SURINAMENSIS (Gmelin). Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York. 193 pp.
Hands, H.M., R.D. Drobney, and M.R. Ryan. 1989. Status of the black tern in the northcentral United States. Missouri Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit Rep. 15 pp.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Heath, S.R., and F.A. Servello. 2008. Effects of predation and food provisioning on Black Tern chick survival. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120:167-175.
Hickey, J.M. 1997. Breeding biology and population dynamics of the black tern in western New York. M.S. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca.
Hickey, J.M., and R.A. Malecki. 1997. Nest site selection of the black tern in western New York. Colonial Waterbirds 20:582-595.
Jobin, B., J.L. DesGranges, and C. Boutin. 1996. Population trends in selected species of farmland birds in relation to recent developments in agriculture in the St. Lawrence Valley. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 57:103-116.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Knutson, M.G. 1991. Characteristics of black tern (Chlidonias niger) nesting habitat at Lakeview Wildlife Management Area, New York. Kingbird 41:228-235.
Kudell-Ekstrum, J., and T. Rinaldi. 2004. Conservation assessment for black tern (Chlidonias niger). USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region, Milwaukee, WI.
Laughlin, S. B., and D. P. Kibbe, editors. 1985. The atlas of breeding birds of Vermont. University Press of New England, Hanover Vermont. 456 pp.
Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
Linz, G.M., D.L. Bergman, D.C. Blixt, and W.J. Bleier. 1994. Response of black terns (Chlidonias niger) to Glyphosate-induced habitat alterations on wetlands. Colonial Waterbirds 17:160-167.
Linz, G.M., and D.C. Blixt. 1997. Black terns benefit from cattail management in the northern Great Plains. Colonial Waterbirds 20:617-621.
Maxson, G. A. D. 1989. Marsh hawk predation on black tern and pectoral sandpiper. Prairie Naturalist 10:25-26.
Maxson, S.J., J.R. Fieberg, and M.R. Riggs. 2007. Black tern habitat selection and factors affecting nest success in northwestern Minnesota. Waterbirds 30:1-9.
Mazzocchi, I.M., J.M. Hickey, and R.L. Miller. 1997. Productivity and nesting habitat characteristics of the black tern in northern New York. Colonial Waterbirds 20:596-603.
Mazzocchi, Irene M. and Mandi Roggie. 2004. Black tern (Chlidonias niger) statewide surey and observations, 2001. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources. Watertown, New York. 18 pp.
Mazzocchi, Irene. 1995. Highlights of the 1995 black tern survey. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Region 6.
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
McNicholl, M. K. 1975. Larid site tenacity and group adherence in relation to habitat. Auk 92:98-104.
Morrison, M. P.O. Box 398, Wilder, VT.
Mossman, M. 1980. The second year of Wisconsin's black tern survey, 1980. Unpubl. report, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison. 14 pp.
Muller, S.L., I.M. Mazzocchi and K. Loconti-Lee. 1992. Black tern (Chlidonias niger) investigations in New York State, 1990 and 1991. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish and Wildlife.
Muller, S.L., I.M. Mazzocchi, and K. Loconti-Lee. 1992. Black tern (CHLIDONIAS NIGER) investigations in New York state, 1990 and 1991. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Watertown, NY. 35 pp.
Muller, S.L., and M.L. Roggie. 2001. Telemetry studies of the black tern (Chlidonias niger) in New York 2000. Unpublished report. NYS DEC, Watertown, NY.
Murphy, M.T. 2003. Avian population trends within the evolving agricultural landscape of eastern and central United States. The Auk 120:20-34.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
Naugle, D.E. 2004. Black tern (Chlidonias niger): a technical conservation assessment. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region.
Naugle, D.E., K.F. Higgins, M.E. Estey, R.R. Johnson, and S.M. Nusser. 2000. Local and landscape-level factors influencing black tern habitat suitability. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:253-260.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 2005. Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy Planning Database. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.
Nisbet, I.C.T. 1997. Status, biology and management of the black tern: symposium summary and overview. Colonial Waterbirds 20:622-625.
Novak, P. G. 1992. Black tern, CHLIDONIAS NIGER. Pages 149-169 in K. J. Schneider and D. M. Pence, editors. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the Northeast. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, Massachusetts. 400 pp.
Peterjohn, B.G., and J.R. Sauer. 1997. Population trends of black terns from the North American breeding bird survey, 1966-1996. Colonial Waterbirds 20:566-573.
Pittman, H. H. 1927. The black terns of Saskatchewan. Condor 29:140-143.
Rabenold, P. P. 1987. 1987 survey of black terns (CHLIDONIAS NIGER) breeding in Indiana. Unpubl. report, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Widlife, Indianapolis. 13 pp.
Salzman, E. 1986. Breeding behavior by a black tern on a Long Island salt marsh. Kingbird 36(1):8-10.
Sauer, J.R., and S. Droege. 1992. Geographical patterns in population trends of Neotropical migrants in North America. Pages 26-42 in J.M. Hagan, III, and D.W. Johnston, editors. Ecology and conservation of Neotropical migrant landbirds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Servello, F.A. 2000. Population research priorities for black terns developed from modeling analyses. Colonial Waterbirds 23:440-448.
Shambaugh, N. 1996. Current status and future research and management needs of the black tern in Vermont. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, Waterbury, VT.
Shealer, D.A., and J.A. Haverland. 2000. Effects of investigator disturbance on the reproductive behavior and success of Black Terns. Waterbirds 23:15-23.
Shuford, W.D. 1999. Status assessment and conservation plan for the black tern (Chlidonias niger) in North America. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, CO.
Sirois, J., and M.A. Fournier. 1993. Clarification of the status of the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Colonial Waterbirds 16:208-212.
Spaans, A. L. 1978. Status of terns along the Suriname coast. Bird-Banding 49:66-76.
Stern, M. A., R. L. Jarvis, and R. Del Caro. 1985. Mate fidelity, site tenacity, and sex dimorphic traits in black terns. Colonial Waterbird Group Newsletter 9:52.
Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Tilghman, N. G. 1979. The black tern survey, 1979. Unpubl. report, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. 11 pp.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1987. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the United States: the 1987 list. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Migratory Bird Management, Washington, D.C. 63 pp.
Weller, M. W., and C. S. Spatcher. 1965. Role of habitat in the distribution and abundance of marsh birds. Iowa State University Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station Special Report No. 43. Ames, Iowa. 31 pp.
Weseloh, D.V.C., J. Rodrigue, H. Blokpoel, and P.J. Ewins. 1997. Contaminant concentrations in eggs of black terns (Chlidonia niger) from southern Ontario and southern Quebec, 1989-1996. Colonial Waterbirds 20:604-616.
Williams, S. O. 1983. Distribution and migration of the black tern in Mexico. Condor 85:376-378.
Zaret, T. M., and R. T. Paine. 1973. Species introduction in a tropical lake. Science 182:449-455.
Zimmerman, A.L., A. Dechant, D.H. Johnson, C.M. Goldade, B.E. Jamison, and B.R. Euliss. 2002. Effects of management practices on wetland birds: Black Tern. Northern Prairie Research Center, Jamestown, ND. 37p
van Halewijn, R. 1973. Black tern, CHLIDONIAS NIGER, in the south Caribbean Sea. Ardea 61:189-191.


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Information for this guide was last updated on: 07-Aug-2017