New York Natural Heritage Program
Black Skimmer
Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
Arthur, S. C. 1921. The feeding habits of the black skimmer. Auk 38:566-574.
Bent, A.C. 1921. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 113. Washington, D.C.
Buckley, P. A., and F. G. Buckley. 1984. Seabirds of the north and middle Atlantic coast of the United States: their status and conservation. Pages 101-133 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.
Buckley, Paul A. and Francine G. Buckley. 1980. Population and colony site trends of Long Island waterbirds for five years in the mid 1970s. Transactions Linnaean Society, New York. Vol. IX:23-56.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Burger, J., and M. Gochfeld. 1990. The black skimmer: the social dynamics of a colonial species. Columbia Univ. Press, New York. 416 pp.
Erwin, R. M. 1977. Black skimmer breeding ecology and behavior. Auk 94: 709-717.
Gibbons, Michelle. 2008. 2008 Long Island colonial waterbird and piping plover survey results. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Stony Brook, New York.
Gochfeld, M. 1978. Colony and nest site selection by black skimmers. Proceedings of the Colonial Waterbird Group 1:78-90.
Gochfeld, M., and J. Burger. 1994. Black Skimmer (RHYNCHOPS NIGER). No. 108 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 28 pp.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Leavitt, B. B. 1957. Food of the black skimmer (Rynchops nigra). Auk 74:394.
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
National Geographic Society (NGS). 1999. Field guide to the birds of North America. Third edition. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. 480 pp.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
NatureServe. 2009. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Data last updated July 17, 2009)
New York Natural Heritage Program. 2009. Biotics Database. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.
New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1985. Final breeding bird distribution maps, 1980-1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.
Peterson, R. T. 1980. A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 384 pp.
Rosenblatt, D. 2006. Species group report for beach and island ground-nesting birds. Pages 12-18 of Appendix A1, Species group reports for birds in: New York State comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy. New York Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany NY.
Spendelow, J. A. and S. R. Patton. 1988. National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-1982. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(5). x + 326 pp.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Tomkins, I. R. 1951. Method of feeding in the black skimmer, (Rynchops nigra). Auk 68: 236-239.
Vogt, W. 1934. Black skimmer (Rynchops nigra) breeding in New York. Auk 51:521.


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This guide was authored by:
Information for this guide was last updated on: 10-Aug-2017