New York Natural Heritage Program
Prothonotary Warbler
Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert, 1783)

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.
Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.
Bent, A. C. 1953. Life histories of North American wood warblers. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 203. Washington, D.C.
Blem, C. R., and L. B. Blem. 1991. Cation concentrations and acidity in breeding ponds of the spotted salamander, AMBYSTOMA MACULATUM (Shaw) (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae), in Virginia. Brimleyana 17:67-76.
Blem, C. R., and L. B. Blem. 1991. Nest-box selection by Prothonotary Warblers. Journal of Field Ornithology 62:299-307.
Blem, C.R., and L.B. Blem. 1994. Composition and microclimate of Prothonotary Warbler nests. Auk 111(1):197-200.
Brush, T. 1991. Nesting ecology of Prothonotary Warblers in eastern Iowa: 1988-1991. Report submitted to the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Unpublished.
Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.
Bushman, E. S., and G. D. Therres. 1988. Habitat management guidelines for forest interior breeding birds of coastal Maryland. Maryland Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Tech. Publ. 88-1. 50 pp.
Carter, M., C. Hunter, D. Pashley, and D. Petit. 1998. The Watch List. Bird Conservation, Summer 1998:10.
Fleming, W. J. and D. R. Petit. 1986. Modified milk carton nest box for studies of Prothonotary Warblers. Journal of Field Ornithology 57:313-5.
Griscom, L., and A. Sprunt, Jr. 1979. The warblers of America. Doubleday and Co., Garden City, New York. 302 pp.
Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.
Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 279 pp.
Harrison, H.H. 1984. Wood warblers' world. Simon and Schuster, New York. 335 pp.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Leberman, R. C. 1992. Prothonotary Warbler. Pages 334-5 in D. W. Brauning (editor). Atlas of breeding birds in Pennsylvania. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
McGowan, K.J. and K. Corwin, eds. 2008. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State: 2000-2005. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 688 pp.
National Geographic Society (NGS). 1987. Field guide to the birds of North America. Second edition. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: November 29, 2006 ).
New York State Breeding Bird Atlas. 1985. Final breeding bird distribution maps, 1980-1985. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 2005. New York State Breeding Bird Atlas Database. Division of Fish and Wildlife, Albany, NY.
Petit, L. J. 1989. Breeding biology of Prothonotary Warblers in riverine habitat in Tennessee. The Wilson Bulletin 101:51-61.
Petit, L. J. 1991. Adaptive tolerance of cowbird parasitism by Prothonotary Warblers: a consequence of nest-site limitation? Animal Behavior 41:425-32.
Petit, L. J., W. J. Fleming, K. E. Petit, and D. R. Petit. 1987. Nest-box use by Prothonotary Warblers (PROTONOTARIA CITREA) in riverine habitat. The Wilson Bulletin 99:485-8.
Petit, L. J., et al. 1990. Intersexual and temporal variation in foraging ecology of prothonotary warblers during the breeding season. Auk 107:133-145. See also Auk 107:146-152.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Walkinshaw, L. H. 1941. The Prothonotary Warbler, a comparison of nesting conditions in Tennessee and Michigan. The Wilson Bulletin 65:152-68.
Walkinshaw, L. H. 1953. Life-history of the Prothonotary Warbler. The Wilson Bulletin 65:152-168.


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Information for this guide was last updated on: 10-Aug-2017