New York Natural Heritage Program
Swallowtail Shiner
Notropis procne (Cope, 1865)
Ray-finned Fishes

Threats [-]
It has been difficult to determine specific threats to individual species, including swallowtail shiner, in medium-sized river systems (pers comm Douglas Carlson 2017). Notropis volucellus (mimic shiner) has recently expanded its range in New York and may be outcompeting swallowtail shiners in some river systems (Stauffer et al. 2016). General threats include: nutrient enrichment (i.e., from agricultural practices), municipal discharge, urban runoff and sewer discharge, and river modifications (e.g., dams, channelization, and bridge construction).

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
Management needs are difficult to recommend until additional research addresses reasons for population declines. It is assumed that any practices that reduce water pollution would benefit the aquatic community. Restoration of riparian vegetation will help control nonpoint pollution. Agricultural practices that reduce the amount of runoff from livestock and crops could reduce nutrient enrichment and excess sedimentation. It is possible that mimic shiners were introduced in different areas of the state by fishermen discarding unused bait. Public education may help reduce this practice.

Research Needs [-]
Little is known about the reasons for Swallowtail Shiner declines in New York. Additional research is needed to determine threats, habitat requirements, and best management practices. It appears that Notropis volucellus (mimic shiner) may be outcompeting swallowtail shiners (pers comm Douglas Carlson 2017). Research focusing on the effects of mimic shiner on native shiners may help guide management practices. Water quality requirements and pollution tolerance are unknown.