New York Natural Heritage Program
Eastern Wormsnake
Carphophis amoenus (Say, 1825)

Barbour, R. W., M. J. Harvey, and J. W. Hardin. 1969. Home range, movement, and activity of the eastern worm snake, CARPHOPHIS A. AMOENUS. Ecology 50:470-476.
Barbour, R.W. 1960. A study of the worm snake, Carphophis amoenus, Say in Kentucky. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 21: 10-16.
Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.
Burnley, J.M. 1971. Early date records of amphibians and reptiles on Long Island. Engelhardtia 4(1):1-7.
Clark, D. R., Jr. 1970. Ecological study of the worm snakeCarphophis vermis (Kennicott). Univ. Kansas Pub. Mus. Nat. Hist. 19:85-194.
Collins, J. T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8. xiii + 356 pp.
Collins, J. T. 1991. Viewpoint: a new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles. SSAR Herpetol. Review 22:42-43.
Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 616 pp.
DeGraaf, R. M., and D. D. Rudis. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of New England. Habitats and natural history. Univ. Massachusetts Press. vii + 83 pp.
DeGraaf, R.M. and D.D. Rudis. 1981. Forest habitat for reptiles and amphibians of the northeast. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Eastern Region, Milwaukee, WI. 239 pp.
Eckel, E.C. and F.C. Paulmier. 1902. Catalogue of New York reptiles and batrachians. New York State Museum Bull. No. 51. Albany, NY.
Ernst, C. H., J. M. Orr, and T. R. Creque. 2003. Carphophis amoenus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 774:1-7.
Ernst, C.H., S.C. Belfit, S.W. Sekscienski, and A.F. Laemmerzahl. 1997. The amphibians and reptiles of Ft. Belvoir and northern Virginia. Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc. 33: 1-62.
Ernst, S.G. 1962. Notes on the life history of the eastern ringneck snake. Turtox News 40(10): 266-267.
Gibbs, J.P., A.R. Breisch, P.K. Ducey, G. Johnson, J.L. Behler, and R.C. Bothner. 2007. The amphibians and reptiles of New York State. Oxford University Press, NY.
Green, N. B., and T. K. Pauley. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburg Press, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. xi + 241 pp.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Klemens, M.W. 1993. Amphibians and Reptiles of Connecticut and Adjacent Regions. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin No. 112.
McLeod, R.F., and J.E. Gates. 1998. Response of herpetofaunal communities to forest cutting and burning at Chesapeake Farms, Maryland. American Midland Naturalist 139: 164-177.
Minton, S. A., Jr. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy Science Monographs 3. v + 346 pp.
Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pp.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
NatureServe. 2007. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: December 19, 2007).
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife, and Marine Resources. 2006. New York State Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. Albany, NY: New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 1985. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit. Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.
Orr, John M. 2006. Microhabitat use by the Eastern worm snake, Carphophis amoenus. Hepetological Bulletin. 97: 29-35.
Palmer, W. M., and A. L. Braswell. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Reilly, E.M. 1955. Snakes of New York. New York State Conservationist: 22-23 and 26.
Schlauch, F.C. and J.M. Burnley. 1972. Distributional survey of the indigenous Herpetozoans of Long Island. Revised edition. Engelhardtia 5(3):13-17.


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Information for this guide was last updated on: 07-Aug-2017