New York Natural Heritage Program
Timber Rattlesnake
Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758
Timber Rattlesnake (Yellow Phase) Jesse W. Jaycox
Family: Vipers and Pit Vipers (Viperidae)

State Protection: Threatened
A native species likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future in New York (includes any species listed as federally Threatened by the United States). It is illegal to take, import, transport, possess, or sell an animal listed as Threatened, or its parts, without a permit from NYSDEC. 1) Any native species likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future in New York. 2) Any species listed as threatened by the U.S. Department of the Interior.

Federal Protection: Not Listed

State Rarity Rank: S3
A State Rarity Rank of S3 means: Typically 21 to 100 occurrences, limited acreage, or miles of stream in New York State.

Global Rarity Rank: G4
A Global Rarity Rank of G4 means: Apparently secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

Did you know?
Newborn timber rattlesnakes, often born well away from the overwintering den, follow the scent trails of adult snakes back to the den for hibernation (Brown and MacLean 1983, Reinert and Zappalorti 1988).

State Ranking Justification [-]
There are approximately 205 extant dens known in the state, but when interacting and potentially interacting populations are taken into consideration, the number of occurrences will be in the range of 35 to 60. Indiscriminate killing and unregulated collecting, including a past bounty system in some portions of the range, has resulted in many populations becoming extirpated or depleted in numbers in most areas where the species was once numerous. Bounties on timber rattlesnakes were outlawed in New York State in 1971, but even in areas without bounties, rattlesnakes were collected or severely persecuted by local residents in many areas. These factors, combined with a low reproductive potential, and current threats such as development, illegal collecting, and other disturbance factors will likely prevent or slow population recovery.

Short-term Trends [-]

Long-term Trends [-]