New York Natural Heritage Program
Timber Rattlesnake
Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758
Reptiles
Links

References
Barbour, R. W. 1971. Amphibians and reptiles of Kentucky. Univ. Press of Kentucky, Lexington. x + 334 pp.
Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.
Brown, C. W., and C. H. Ernst. 1986. A study of variation in eastern timber rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus Linnaeus (Serpentes: Viperidae). Brimleyana 12:57-74.
Brown, W. S. 1984. Background information for the protection of the timber rattlesnake in New York state. Bull. Chicago Herptetol. Soc. 19:94-97.
Brown, W. S. 1987. Hidden life of the timber rattler. National Geographic 172:128-138.
Brown, W. S. 1988. Timber rattlesnake: background information for protection as a threatened species in New York State. New York Herpetologoical Society Newsletter No. 115. 2 pp.
Brown, W. S. 1991. Female reproductive ecology in a northern population of the timber rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus. Herpetologica 47:101-115.
Brown, W. S. 1993. Biology, status, and management of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus): a guide for conservation. SSAR Herp. Circ. No. 22. vi + 78 pp.
Brown, W. S., D. W. Pyle, K. R. Greene, and J. B. Friedlander. 1982. Movements and temperature relationships of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) in northeastern New York. J. Herpetol. 16:151-161.
Brown, W.S. and F.M. Maclean. 1983. Conspecific scent-trailing by newborn timber rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus. Herpetologica 39(4):430-436.
Campbell, J. A., and E. D. Brodie, Jr., editors. 1992. Biology of the pit vipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas.
Chambers, R.E. 1983. Integrating timber and wildlife management. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
Collins, J. T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8. xiii + 356 pp.
Collins, J. T. and J. L. Knight. 1980. Crotalus horridus. Catologue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. SSAR No. 47:1-2.
Conant, R. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xvii + 429 pp.
Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.
Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 616 pp.
DeGraaf, R. M., and D. D. Rudis. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of New England. Habitats and natural history. Univ. Massachusetts Press. vii + 83 pp.
DeGraaf, R.M. and D.D. Rudis. 1981. Forest habitat for reptiles and amphibians of the northeast. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Eastern Region, Milwaukee, WI. 239 pp.
Dundee, H. A., and D. A. Rossman. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.
Ernst, C. H. 1992. Venomous reptiles of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. ix + 236 pp.
Ernst, C. H., and R. W. Barbour. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, Virginia. 282 pp.
Gibbons, J. W., and R. D. Semlitsch. 1991. Guide to the reptiles and amphibians of the Savannah River Site. Univ. of Georgia Press, Athens. xii + 131 pp.
Green, N. B., and T. K. Pauley. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburg Press, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. xi + 241 pp.
Johnson, T. R. 1987. The amphibians and reptiles of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. 368 pp.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Klauber, L. M. 1972. Rattlesnakes: their habits, life histories, and influence on mankind. Second edition. Two volumes. Univ. California Press, Berkeley.
Martin, W. H. 1992. Phenology of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) in an unglaciated section of the Appalachian Mountains. Pages 259-277 in Campbell, J. A., and E. D. Brodie, Jr. Biology of the pit vipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas.
Martin, W. H. 1993. Reproduction of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) in the Appalachian Mountains. J. Herpetol. 27:133-143.
Martof, B. S., W. M. Palmer, J. R. Bailey, and J. R. Harrison, III. 1980. Amphibians and reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 264 pp.
Minton, S. A., Jr. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy Science Monographs 3. v + 346 pp.
Mitchell, J. C. 1991. Amphibians and reptiles. Pages 411-76 in K. Terwilliger (coordinator). Virginia's Endangered Species: Proceedings of a Symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pp.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 4.7. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. (Accessed: March 28, 2006).
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources. 2006. Timber Rattlesnake fact sheet.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife, and Marine Resources. 2006. New York State Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. Albany, NY: New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
Petersen, R. C., and R. W. Fritsch, II. 1986. Connecticut's Venomous Snakes: The Timber Rattlesnake and Northern Copperhead. Second Edition. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Connecticut. Bull. 111. 48 pp.
Peterson, A. 1990. Ecology and management of a timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus L.) population in south-central New York. Pages 255-261 in Mitchell et al., eds. Ecosystem management: rare species and significant habitats. New York State Mus. Bull. 471.
Pisani, G. R., J. T. Collins, S. R. Edwards. 1972. A re-evaluation of the subspecies of Crotalus horridus. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 75(3):255-263.
Reinert, H. K., D. Cundall, and L. M. Bushar. 1984. Foraging behavior of the timber rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus. Copeia 1984:976-981.
Reinert, H. K., and R. T. Zappalorti. 1988. Field observation of the association of adult and neonatal timber rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus, with possible evidence for conspecific trailing. Copeia 1988:1057-1059.
Reinert, H. K., and R. T. Zappalorti. 1988. Timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) of the Pine Barrens: their movement patterns and habitat preference. Copeia 1988:964-978.
Smith, P. W. 1961. The amphibians and reptiles of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey 28:1-298.
Stechert, Randy. 1980. Observations on northeastern snake dens. Bulletin of the New York Herpetological Society.15(2):7-14.
Stechert, Randy. 1982. Historical depletion of timber rattlesnake colonies in New York State. Bulletin of the New York Herpetological Society. 17(2):23-24.
Tennant, A. 1984. The Snakes of Texas. Texas Monthly Press, Austin, Texas. 561 pp.
Tyning, T. F., editor. 1992. Conservation of the timber rattlesnake in the northeast. Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, Massachusetts.
Vogt, R. C. 1981. Natural history of amphibians and reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum. 205 pp.
Webb, R. G. 1970. Reptiles of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 370 pp.

Acknowledgements

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This guide was authored by:
Information for this guide was last updated on: 07-Aug-2017