New York Natural Heritage Program
Karner Blue
Plebejus melissa samuelis (Nabokov, 1944)
Insects

Threats [-]
The threats include habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation, fire suppression, inappropriate management of lupine (Lupinus perennis), mosquito spraying and the use of other insecticides, and browsing of lupine by herbivores, primarily deer. There is also a concern that a reduction in winter snow pack and other changes, due to climate change, threaten this species. Such threats could be of particular concern in New York, which has a warmer climate and is farther south than most of the current range for this butterfly.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
All occupied sites should be managed to increase the amount of lupine (Lupinus perennis) and to connect nearby demes (subpopulations). Controlling herbivores such as deer and protecting occupied sites from spraying with insecticides is also a management need.

Research Needs [-]
The severity of mosquito spraying to larvae and adults needs to be evaluated, since aerial adulticiding for mosquitoes is more prevalent in New York than most other northern states and sometimes involves large areas.