New York Natural Heritage Program
Northern Metalmark
Calephelis borealis (Grote and Robinson, 1866)
Insects

Threats [-]
The main threats would be habitat loss to development, invasive plants, succession, and the isolation of the remaining colony (or colonies). It is not known whether the remaining population is large enough to persist. Deer are also a potentially serious threat. While they do not severely graze the foliage of the foodplant, roundleaf ragwort (Packera (better known as Senecio) obovata), they do eat the flowers which could reduce the foodplant in the long term. Of most immediate concern though is the elimination of nectar sources by deer. This has been observed several times in potential, but unoccupied, habitats in New Jersey. Gypsy moth spraying could also be a threat, but the potential sensitivity of larvae to Btk (Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki - a bacterial biological control used on gypsy moth caterpillars) is not known. This species proved to be remarkably unaffected by repeated collecting over most of the 20th century at the classic Springdale, New Jersey site which suggests a larger population than was apparent.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
Although unknown at this time, the potential needs include deer management and control of invasive plants. If no other colonies still exist in the state, serious consideration should be given to establishing a few additional colonies on secure sites near the current one.