New York Natural Heritage Program
Barrens Itame
Speranza exonerata Ferguson, 2008
Insects

Threats [-]
Loss of habitat to development is a threat on Long Island where this species is undoubtedly more widespread than is now known. Fire suppression, to the extent where scrub oak habitats become forest or even heavily shaded, is a threat. However, in New Jersey, populations can persist on scrub oaks under a moderate pine canopy. Complete burns are also a threat since most eggs would be killed and any larvae that did appear in the spring would probably be out too early to feed on sprouts. Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar spraying could be a threat, but sensitivity to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis - a bacterial biological control used on gypsy moth caterpillars) by the Barrens Itame is unknown. Defoliation could also be a threat (more likely on ridgetops than in sandy places), depending on whether or not larvae have already pupated.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
Most occurrences are likely to need occasional to frequent fires to maintain the habitat, however an entire barren should not be burned in the same season.