New York Natural Heritage Program
Black-eyed Zale
Zale curema (Smith, 1908)
Insects

Threats [-]
The only known threat is habitat loss to development. This species does not need intact pine barrens and, as long as Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida) remains abundant, populations should not be affected much by management activities. Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) spraying would be a threat if chemical biocides were used. However, given that Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis - a bacterial biological control used on Gypsy Moth caterpillars) generally remains lethal for about a week or less, and given the staggered phenology and long oviposition season of Zale curema, it is very unlikely that a single application of Bt could cause the extirpation of a population, even if the larvae are highly sensitive to it.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
Refugia, or unburned areas, are needed during prescribed burns, since most of the pupae in the leaf litter or humus layer would probably be killed during a fire. Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) spraying should be avoided or, if control is necessary, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis - a bacterial biological control used on Gypsy Moth caterpillars) should be used.