New York Natural Heritage Program
Ostrich Fern Borer Moth
Papaipema sp. 2 nr. pterisii

Threats [-]
The most obvious threat is habitat loss to development, agriculture, or to damming and channelization of streams and small rivers. Invasive plants are also a threat in many habitats and mosquito spraying may be a threat, as well. Where this species is occupying multiple small habitat patches as a metapopulation, artificial lights (including bug zappers) operating in the early fall could disrupt necessary movements between these patches (Eisenbeis 2006, Frank 2006). This could cause fern patches where a local colony dies out to remain unoccupied, and this could eventually eliminate the enitre occurrence.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
In areas where artificial lighting is necessary, using sodium lights or other low ultraviolet lamps would be beneficial. Controlling invasive plants that threaten ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris). Monitoring deer herbivory in more upland habitats may also be beneficial. Although deer generally do not severely impact ferns, they sometimes do eat the young fronds in May and, if they eat a lot of the fronds in spring, they would be significant predators on young larvae.