New York Natural Heritage Program
Toothed Apharetra
Sympistis dentata (Grote, 1875)
Insects

Threats [-]
The threats vary depending on the habitat; e.g., it is under more threat at the Albany Pine Bush and is likely to be unthreatened at some of the Adirondack locations. The potential threats in barrens and other dry places include loss of habitat due to a lack of fire, or conversely, a fire affecting the entire occurrence which could eliminate all life stages that are present. Additional threats include blackfly spraying in the Adirondack region, mosquito spraying, and potentially Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) spraying in southeastern New York. However, the sensitivity of both the larvae or adults to the biocide doses used in mosquito control, or of the larvae to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis - a bacterial biological control used on Gypsy Moth caterpillars), is unknown. Some bog populations may be vulnerable to hydrological changes.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
The entire occupied habitat for a population should not be burned in a single year. Minimizing Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) spraying and other spring spraying may be beneficial, although it is unknown whether the larvae are sensitive to Btk (Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki - a strain of Bt used to control Gypsy Moths). Such sensitivity is extremely variable among Noctuidae. Severe Gypsy Moth defoliation itself could be a threat in barrens habitats if the blueberries were largely stripped of their leaves. The phenology of the adults suggests that the larvae could still be present when defoliation becomes severe. Barrens populations seem to often occur at low densities and seem to thrive best after a fire.

Research Needs [-]
The possibility that the Long Island-New Jersey populations merits separate taxonomic status needs investigation.