New York Natural Heritage Program
Southern Pygmy Clubtail
Lanthus vernalis Carle, 1980
Insects

Threats [-]
This species is restricted to pristine spring-fed seepages and streams and the larvae are intolerant of excessive sedimentation (Carle, 1980). Specific threats could include human-caused changes to natural hydrology of groundwater and/or excessive siltation of streams (i.e., dams, water withdrawls, hydrofracking, urbanization, improper logging techniques); climate change events such as extreme drought and/or increased flooding could alter the temperature and reliability of subsurface flows. Factors affecting the amount and compsoition of riparian forests such as developement and urbanization could also impact populations (SaintOurs 2002).

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
This species is very difficult to survey for and is easily confused with its congener, L. parvalus. Thus, true trend estimates are difficult to ascertain. Since this is a groundwater and forest obligate, site specific as well as landscape-level management issues related to maintaining high levels of forested cover should benefit populations.

Research Needs [-]
There is very little known about all aspects of this species' life history and population dynamics, especially the secretive adults.