New York Natural Heritage Program
New England Bluet
Enallagma laterale Morse, 1895
Insects

Threats [-]
Any activities which degrade the sensitive hydrology or water quality of the ponds where it occurs could threaten populations of these damselflies. Examples include: ditching, filling, eutrophication and changes in dissolved oxygen content, direct effects of pesticides (e.g. for mosquito control or from agricultural runoff), and other chemical contamination from runoff or discharge of agricultural, industrial, or urban effluent. Introduction of fish may be a threat as a number of Enallagma species are thought to be restricted to, or reach their highest population levels in, fishless ponds. Historically, coastal plain ponds dried out completely during occasional severe droughts, which prevented fish from establishing themselves in these ponds. Today, many ponds in the Central Pine Barrens never go completely dry due to deep holes dug at the edge of nearly all coastal plain ponds, and several species of fish introduced by the public have become permanent pond residents. Off-road vehicle use along or near pond shores and groundwater withdrawal have been noted as specific problems in New England and New York (Carpenter 1990, Donnelly 1999). At the present time, only a few public water supply wells are currently located near existing coastal plain ponds on Long Island, so groundwater withdrawal may not be a major threat to known populations of this species (Central Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission 2003). Future new supply water wells could pose a threat, if they are located near ponds occupied by this bluet. While groundwater sources are protected for the majority of ponds within the Central Pine Barrens Core Preserve, they are not protected for ponds in the Compatible Growth Area (Central Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission 2003) or other areas of Long Island. The Westchester County populations could be threatened or negatively impacted by further lakeshore development. Fish stocking is a potential threat at one of the Orange County sites. Treatment of ponds for mosquito control relative to West Nile Virus may be a threat, particularly at sites on Long Island.

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
The reduction or elimination of off-road vehicle use is needed at some coastal plain pond sites. Removal of introduced fish and non-native plants should be undertaken at sites where they are indicated as a potential problem and where it is practical to achieve positive results. Monitor damselfly populations in relation to water level fluctuation and other potential threats. Efforts to ensure that aerial pesticide spraying does not occur over, or in close proximity to coastal plain ponds and the adjacent uplands during the adult flight period would be desirable.

Research Needs [-]
Research aimed at gaining a better understanding of the ecology of coastal plain pond damselfly species, including habitat preferences and threats to the species are needed.