New York Natural Heritage Program
Pine Barrens Bluet
Enallagma recurvatum Davis, 1913
Insects

Threats [-]
Any activity which might lead to water contamination or the alteration of natural hydrology could impact Pine Barrens Bluet populations (NYS DEC 2005). Such threats might include roadway and agricultural run-off, ditching and filling, eutrophication and nutrient loading from fertilizers, herbicides, and septic systems, changes in dissolved oxygen content, and development near their habitats (NYS DEC 2005). Groundwater withdrawal is a potential threat in lentic habitats on Long Island, as are invasive plant species replacing native plants like white water lily that Pine Barrens Bluet requires for oviposition (New York Natural Heritage Program 2011). The introduction of grass carp is also a threat to coastal plain ponds on Long Island. A potential threat to the bluets may be the impact of Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) browse on native vegetation (New York Natural Heritage Program 2011). In addition, both emergence rates and/or species ranges may shift for odonate species as a result of climate change (Kalkman et al. 2008).

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices [-]
Any efforts to reduce roadway and agricultural run-off, eutrophication, development of upland borders to ponds and resulting increased groundwater withdrawal, invasive plant and animal species, trampling of vegetation from recreation, and ditching and filling activities should be considered when managing for this species (NYS DEC 2005, White et al. 2010). Maintenance or restoration of native shoreline vegetation and surrounding upland habitat will benefit this species, as females require native emergent vegetation for successful reproduction and spend much of their time in upland habitats away from the breeding pond (Gibbons et al. 2002, White et al. 2010). Many of the known sites on Long Island are located within or on preserves or protected lands, but the above listed threats might be present on adjacent lands.

Research Needs [-]
Further monitoring is needed to define the extent of populations of Pine Barrens Bluets in New York. In addition, research is required to understand the habitat requirements and threats to this species. In particular, the impact of Canada Goose at some of the locations in Suffolk county should be assessed to determine if bird browse decreases oviposition sites or increases egg mortality by overgrazing native rushes used by Pine Barrens Bluets (White et al. 2010). A recovery plan for the species should be developed and appropriate management guidelines should be adopted for its persistence in known locations (NYS DEC 2005).