New York Natural Heritage Program
Alewife Floater
Anodonta implicata Say, 1829

Barnett, P.R.O 1972. Effects of warm water effluents from power stations on marine life. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 180: 497-509.
Bauer G. 1992. Variation in the life span and size of the freshwater pearl mussel. Journal of Animal Ecology 61: 425-436.
Bauer, G. 1988. Threats to the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Biological Conservation 45:239-253.
Burch, J.B. 1975. Freshwater unionacean clams (mollusca: pelecypoda) of North America. Malcological Publications. Hamburg, Michigan. 204 pp.
Chen, M.H., H. Yang, M. Delaporte, and S. Zhao. 2007. Immune condition of Chlamys farreri in response to acute temperature challenge. Aquaculture 271: 479-487.
Clarke, A.H. 1981. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D. W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.
Galbraith, H.S. and C.C. Vaughn. 2011. Effects of reservoir management on abundance, condition, parasitism and reproductive traits of downstream mussels. River Research and Applications.
Hastie, L.C., P.J. Cosgrove, N. Ellis, and M.J. Gaywood. 2003. The threat of climate change to freshwater pearl mussel populations. Ambio 32(1):40-46.
Heinricher, J.R. and J.B. Layzer. 1999. Reproduction by individuals of a non-reproducing population of Megalonaias nervosa (Mollusca: Unionidae) following translocation. American Midland Naturalist 141: 140-148.
Helfrich, L.A., R.J. Neves, and H.Chapman. 2009. Sustaining America’s Aquatic Biodiversity – Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation. Available at:
Henley, W. F., L. L. Zimmerman, R. J. Neves. 2001. Design and evaluation of recirculating water systems for maintenance and propagation of freshwater mussels. North American Journal of Aquaculture 63:144-155.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Lellis, W.A. 2001. Freshwater mussel survey of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River: Qualitative Survey 2000. Report to the National Park Service. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, NY.
Limburg, K.E. and J.R. Waldman. 2009. Dramatic declines in North Atlantic Diadromous fishes. BioScience 59: 955-965.
Loayza-Muro, R., and R. Elias-Letts. 2007. Responses of the mussel Anodontites trapesialis (Unionidae) to environmental stressors: effect of pH, temperature and metals on filtration rate. Environmental Pollution 149: 209-215.
Lydeard, C., R.H. Cowie, W.F. Ponder, A.E. Bogan, P. Bouchet, S.A. Clark, K.S. Cummings, T.J. Frest, O. Gargominy, D.G. Herbert, R. Hershler, K.E. Perez, B. Roth, M. Seddon, E.E. Strong, and F.G. Thompson. 2004. The global decline of nonmarine mollusks. BioScience 54:321-330.
Michaelson, D.L. and R.J. Neves. 1995. Life history and habitat of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel Alasmodonta heterodon (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 14(2): 324-340.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
Nedeau, E. 2003. The amazing Alewife. Gulf of Maine Council on the Maine Environment Science Translation Project. Gulf of Maine Times Summer 2003 (Volume 7, No. 2).
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife, and Marine Resources. 2006. New York State Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. Albany, NY: New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
Nichols, S. J., and D. Garling. 2000. Food-web Dynamics and Trophic-level Interactions in a Multispecies Community of Freshwater Unionids. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 871-882.
Pandolfo, T. J., W. G. Cope, C. Arellano, R. B. Bringolf, M. C. Barnhart, and E. Hammer. 2010. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29: 959-969.
Richter, B. D., D. P. Braun, M. A. Mendelson and L. L. Master. 1997. Threats to imperiled freshwater fauna. Conservation Biology 11:1081-1093.
Smith, D.G. 1985. Recent range expansion of the freshwater mussel Anodonta implicata and its relationship to clupeid fish restoration in the Connecticut River system. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology, 4: 105-108.
Strayer, D. L. 2008. A New Widespread Morphological Deformity in Freshwater Mussels from New York. Notes of the Northeastern Naturalist 15: 149-151.
Strayer, D. L., N. Cid, and H. M. Malcom. 2010. Long-term changes in a population of an invasive bivalve and its effects. Oecologia.
Strayer, D.L.1999. Effects of alien species on freshwater mollusks in North America. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 18(1): 74-98.
Strayer, David L. 1987. Ecology and zoogeography of the freshwater mollusks of the Hudson River basin. Malacological Review 20:1-68.
Strayer, David L. and A.R. Fetterman. 1999. Changes in distribution of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the upper Susquehanna River basin, 1955-1965 to 1996-1997. American Midland Naturalist 142:328-339.
Strayer, David L. and D.R. Smith. 2003. A guide to sampling freshwater mussel populations. American Fisheries Society Monograph 8. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 103 pp.
Strayer, David L. and J. Ralley 1991. The freshwater mussels (Bivalva: Unionidae) of the upper Delaware River drainage. American Malacological Bulletin 9 (1): 21-25.
Strayer, David L. and K.J. Jirka. 1997. The Pearly Mussels (Bivalva: Unionoidea) of New York State. New York State Museum Memoir 26. The New York State Education Department.
Strayer, David L. and Lane C. Smith. 1996. Relationships between zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Unionid clams during the early stages of the zebra mussel invasion of the Hudson River. Freshwater Biology 36: 771-779.
Strayer, David L., D.C. Hunter, L.C. Smith, and C.K. Borg. 1994. Distribution, abundance, and roles of freshwater clams (Bivalva, Unionidae) in the freshwater tidal Hudson River. Freshwater Biology 31:239-248.
Strayer, David L., J.A. Dowling, W.R. Haag, T.L. King, J.B. Layzer, T.J. Newton and S.J. Nichols. 2004. Changing perspectives on Pearly Mussels, North America's most Imperiled Animals. BioScience 54:429-439.


Funding from the NYSDEC Hudson River Estuary Program made the initial development of these guides possible.

Additional support has been provided by

Website architect: Andrew Blick.
Modifications and updates: David Marston and Matthew Buff.

Global data are provided by NatureServe and its Natural Heritage member programs, a leading source of information about rare and endangered species, and threatened ecosystems.

New York Natural Heritage Program
625 Broadway, 5th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-4757
Phone: (518) 402-8935 Fax: (518) 402-8925

Please send comments and suggestions to: acris [at] nynhp [dot] org

To continue building a comprehensive, up-to-date database of information on the locations of rare species in New York State, we invite your contributions. If you have information on a rare species, please fill out our Online Rare Species Reporting Form. If you have information on ecological communities, please fill out a Natural Heritage Reporting Form (two-page MS Word document).

This guide was authored by: Kelly A. Perkins
Information for this guide was last updated on: 04-Aug-2017