New York Natural Heritage Program
Black Sandshell
Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819)
Bivalves
Links

References
Burch, J.B. 1975. Freshwater unionacean clams (mollusca: pelecypoda) of North America. Malcological Publications. Hamburg, Michigan. 204 pp.
Clarke, A.H. 1981. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D. W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.
Clarke, A.H. and C.O. Berg. 1959. The freshwater mussels of central New York. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 367.
Corey, C.A., R. Dowling, and D.L. Strayer. 2006. Display behavior of Ligumia (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Northeastern Naturalist 13:319-332.
Keys, Jr.,J.; Carpenter, C.; Hooks, S.; Koenig, F.; McNab, W.H.; Russell, W.;Smith, M.L. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation (cd-rom), Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GIS coverage in ARCINFO format, selected imagery, and map unit tables.
Khym, J.R. and J.B. Layzer. 2000. Host fish suitability for glochidia of Ligumia recta. American Midland Naturalist 143: 178-184.
Marangelo, P.J. and D.L. Strayer. 2000. The freshwater mussels of the Tonawanda Creek basin in western New York. Walkerana, 11(25): 97-106.
NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, Virginia. USA
Parmalee, P.W. and A.E. Bogan. 1998. The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville, Tennessee. 328 pp.
Ricciardi, A., F.J. Whoriskey, and J.B. Rasmussen. 1996. Impact of Dreissena invasion on native unionid bivalves in the upper St. Lawrence River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 53: 1434-1444.
Robertson, I. and C. Blakeslee. 1948. The mollusca of the Niagara Frontier region. Bulletin Buffalo Society Natural Science 19: 1-191.
Schloesser, D.W., and T.F. Nalepa. 1994. Dramatic decline of Unionid bivalves in offshore waters of western Lake Erie after infestation by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 51:2234-2242.
Strayer, David L. and K.J. Jirka. 1997. The Pearly Mussels (Bivalva: Unionoidea) of New York State. New York State Museum Memoir 26. The New York State Education Department.
Strayer, David L., D.C. Hunter, L.C. Smith, and C.K. Borg. 1994. Distribution, abundance, and roles of freshwater clams (Bivalva, Unionidae) in the freshwater tidal Hudson River. Freshwater Biology 31:239-248.
Strayer, David L., J.A. Dowling, W.R. Haag, T.L. King, J.B. Layzer, T.J. Newton and S.J. Nichols. 2004. Changing perspectives on Pearly Mussels, North America's most Imperiled Animals. BioScience 54:429-439.

Acknowledgements

Funding from the NYSDEC Hudson River Estuary Program made the initial development of these guides possible.

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This guide was authored by:
Information for this guide was last updated on: 08-Aug-2017