New York Natural Heritage Program
Hemlock-Hardwood Swamp
Hemlock-hardwood swamp Charlie Cogbill
System: Palustrine
SubSystem: Forested Mineral Soil Wetlands

State Protection: Not Listed
Federal Protection: Not Listed

State Rarity Rank: S4
A State Rarity Rank of S4 means: Apparently secure in New York State.

Global Rarity Rank: G4G5
A Global Rarity Rank of G4G5 means: Apparently or Demonstrably Secure globally - Uncommon to common in the world, but not rare; usually widespread, but may be rare in some parts of its range; possibly some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors. More information is needed to assign a single conservation status.

Did you know?
The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic aphid-like insect, has become a serious threat to the eastern hemlock. These insects feed on the sap of the youngest branches of hemlock, where the needles attach to the twig. The adelgids inject a toxic saliva into the plant as they feed, killing existing needles and interfering with the tree's ability to produce new ones. If it is not controlled, the infected trees may die in three to four years. This would greatly alter the composition and function of hemlock-hardwood swamps.

State Ranking Justification [-]
There are several thousand occurrences statewide. Some documented occurrences have good viability and several are protected on public land or private conservation land. This community has statewide distribution, and includes a few large, high quality examples. The current trend of this community is probably stable for occurrences on public land, or declining slightly elsewhere due to moderate threats that include alteration of the natural hydrology and invasive species.

Short-term Trends [-]

Long-term Trends [-]