New York Natural Heritage Program
Rich Mesophytic Forest
Rich mesophytic forest DJ Evans
System: Terrestrial
SubSystem: Forested Uplands

State Protection: Not Listed
Federal Protection: Not Listed

State Rarity Rank: S2S3
A State Rarity Rank of S2S3 means: Imperiled or Vulnerable in New York - Very vulnerable to disappearing from New York, or vulnerable to becoming imperiled in New York, due to rarity or other factors; typically 6 to 80 populations or locations in New York, few individuals, restricted range, few remaining acres (or miles of stream), and/or recent and widespread declines. More information is needed to assign a single conservation status.

Global Rarity Rank: G4
A Global Rarity Rank of G4 means: Apparently secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

Did you know?
Black bugbane, or black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), a common plant of rich mesophytic forests, has long been used as an herbal medicine to relieve inflammation, and for a variety of conditions that afflict women. Native tribes of eastern North America were known to use this plant in teas for soaking, or in a combination with other herbs as an oral medicine. Early settlers used black cohosh to treat menstrual symptoms, to relieve pain in childbirth, and as an anti-inflammatory agent against arthritis, rheumatism, and lung and nervous disorders. It is now commonly used in Europe to relieve symptoms associated with menopause, and is considered to be an effective alternative to hormone-replacement therapy.

State Ranking Justification [-]
There are probably a few hundred occurrences statewide. A few documented occurrences have good viability and a few are protected on public land or private conservation land. This community has a limited statewide distribution and includes a few large, high quality examples. The current trend of this community is probably stable for occurrences on public land, or declining slightly elsewhere due to moderate threats related to development pressure and logging.

Short-term Trends [-]

Long-term Trends [-]